READ MORE: Why Catherine the Great's Enemies Turned Her into a Sex Fiend. In 1744, 15-year-old Sophie was invited to Russia by Czarina Elizabeth, a daughter of Peter the Great who had assumed the Russian throne in a coup just three years earlier.

The law should protect, not oppress, the people. The guards and prominent personalities of Russia supported Catherine to be their next ruler. During her husband’s lifetime alone, she had at least three lovers; if her hints are to be believed, none of her three children, not even the heir apparent Paul, was fathered by her husband. Catherine faced down more than a dozen uprisings during her reign. We can help you make the right choice from hundreds of St. Petersburg hotels and hostels. Catherine herself gave credence to this rumor in her memoirs, going so far as to say that Empress Elizabeth had been complicit in permitting Catherine and Saltykov’s relationship. In Peter the Great and the West: New Perspectives, ed. Catherine I of Russia was the Empress of Russia from 1724 until her death. See also: menshikov, alexander danilovich; peter i; peter ii. She did, however, suffer a stroke in the toilet (meaning bathroom) and died the next day, on November 6 (November 17, New Style), 1796. The Instruction of Catherine the Great was a Russian political document prepared by the empress as a guide for a legislative commission considering internal reforms. Although he had conducted reforms in practically all areas of Russian life, Peter the Great had nonetheless set a time bomb under the procedure for succession to the Russian throne. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Always parting on good terms, she bestowed upon them titles, land, palaces and even people—gifting one former paramour with more than 1,000 serfs, or indentured servants. Alexander, John. Catherine’s relationship with Peter was one based on mutual love and respect. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Catherine’s eldest son—and heir—may have been illegitimate. Catherine established her own patronage networks at court, where she was closely allied with Menshikov, arranging the marriages of elite women, interceding with Peter on behalf of petitioners, and dispensing charity. Peter found this out and executed Mons and exiled Matrena in 1724.

6. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The new six-man Supreme Privy Council under Menshikov dismantled some of Peter's unsuccessful experiments in provincial government, downsized the army and navy, and reduced the poll tax. Catherine the Great was Tsarina of Russia, one of the most powerful women in European history. She wrote numerous books, pamphlets and educational materials aimed at improving Russia’s education system. The Supreme Privy Council, established by Prince Menshikov and consisting of the most powerful nobles, took over the daily management of the country. (1998). He was extremely neurotic, rebellious, obstinate, perhaps impotent, nearly alcoholic, and, most seriously, a fanatical worshipper of Frederick II of Prussia, the foe of the empress Elizabeth. "Catherine I, Her Court and Courtiers." One particularly nasty rumour held that Catherine had died while attempting sexual intercourse with a horse. READ MORE: The Troubled Marriage of Catherine the Great and Peter III. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Catherine, by contrast, was clearheaded and ambitious. The Russian Tsar was already married, but unhappily so, and gradually he fell in love with the young and attractive Marta. Updates? She encountered the Russian army in Livonia in the summer of 1702, when she was working as a servant, and apparently became the mistress first of a field marshal, then of Peter I's favorite, Alexander Menshikov, then of Peter himself. There were unconfirmed rumors of a secret marriage in 1707, but only in 1711, prior to his departure for war against Turkey, did Peter make Catherine his consort. Catherine bore Peter probably ten children in all, but only two survived into adulthood, Anna (1708–1729) and Elizabeth (1709–1762). She was of Polish origin and was originally named Marta Helena Skowronska.

Catherine I was born as Marta Samuilovna Skavronskaya on 15 April 1684, to Samuel Skowronski and Elisabeth Moritz. In 1773 Yemelyan Pugachov, a former officer of the Don Cossacks, pretending to be the dead emperor Peter III, incited the greatest uprising of Russian history prior to the revolution of 1917.

Her difficult life, multiple childbirths, and heavy drinking after her husband’s death took a major toll on her health. She was the second wife of Peter the Great. Catherine’s enemies in the court spread many different rumours about her death. In 1744 Catherine arrived in Russia, assumed the title of Grand Duchess Catherine Alekseyevna, and married her young cousin the following year.

As tensions mounted, a plan to overthrow Peter took root. In 1767 she convened a commission composed of delegates from all the provinces and from all social classes (except the serfs) for the purpose of ascertaining the true wishes of her people and framing a constitution. Their public wedding took place in February 1712 in St. Petersburg.

(October 16, 2020). At first, she lived at Sheremetev’s home and worked there. Peter the Great fondly called Catherine “Katerinushka”.

In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. PETER I Since her coup d’etat and Peter’s suspicious death demanded both discretion and stability in her dealings with other nations, she continued to preserve friendly relations with Prussia, Russia’s old enemy, as well as with the country’s traditional allies, France and Austria. She came from a very poor family and did not have a pleasant childhood. Much like Elizabeth before her, Catherine took control of the upbringing and education of Paul’s sons, and rumors abounded that she intended to name them her heirs, bypassing Paul. In 1726 an alliance with Austria formed the cornerstone of Russian diplomacy for decades to come. Russia at the time was ruled by Peter the Great’s daughter, the empress Elizabeth, whose 20-year reign greatly stabilized the monarchy. Her attempts at reform, however, were less than satisfying. Catherine I is buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral next to her husband. The wedding of Peter the Great and Catherine I on 19 February 1712, Catherine I in front of the Catherine Palace in St. Petersburg, Portrait of Alexander Danilovich Menshikov, Portrait of Field-Marshal Count Boris Sheremetev. Get our help and advice choosing services and options to plan a prefect train journey. Catherine and Peter had eleven children together, the majority of whom died in early childhood, and only Anna, who married the Duke of Holstein, and Elizabeth, who was crowned Empress in 1741, survived to adulthood. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Catherine was the first woman to rule Imperial Russia, opening the legal path for a century almost entirely dominated by women, including her daughter Elizabeth and Catherine the Great, all of whom continued Peter the Great's policies in modernizing Russia. When Catherine gave birth to a son, Paul, in 1754, gossips murmured that Saltykov—not Peter—had fathered him. When the conspiracy was uncovered in July 1762, Catherine moved quickly, gaining the support of the country’s most powerful military regiment and arranging for her husband’s arrest.

New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. (c. 1686–1727) Yekaterina Akexeyevna, born Martha Skavronska(ya), the second wife of Peter I and empress of Russia from February 8, 1725 to May 17, 1727. The marriage was a complete failure; the following 18 years were filled with disappointment and humiliation for her. gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). HUGHES, LINDSEY "Catherine I Catherine I of Russia was the Empress of Russia from 1724 until her death. Catherine followed his path. Catherine the Great and her husband Peter III of Russia. Also, she gave her name to Kadriorg Park and the neighborhood of Tallinn, Estonia, the place where the Presidential Palace of Estonia exists now. She was buried at St. Peter and St. Paul Fortress next to her husband. She passed away from tuberculosis in 1727.,,,, Under her reign, Russia was revitalised; it grew larger and stronger, and was recognised as one of the great powers of Europe.

Capital punishment and torture should cease. Of course, there is no truth to this rumor. The town where Marta lived was besieged by the troops led by Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev who took her captive. She came from a very poor family and did not have a pleasant childhood. He was a Lutheran pastor and educator who was the first person to translate the Bible into Latvian. She was humiliated, bored, and regarded with suspicion while at court, but she found comfort in reading extensively and in preparing herself for her future role as sovereign. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Until this time, a woman monarch had been an extremely rare occurrence in Russia: Only Princess Olga (Prince Igor's widow) and Princess Sofia, who served as sovereign regent for the young Tsars Ivan and Peter, had albeit briefly held ultimate power in the country. Get around in comfort with a chauffeured car or van to suit your budget and requirements. Catherine now realized that for her the people were more to be feared than pitied, and that, rather than freeing them, she must tighten their bonds. Born: ?, 5 (15) April 1684Died: St. Petersburg, 6 (17) May 1727Reigned: 1725-1727.

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