[96], About one percent of people who receive treatment for mTBI need surgery for a brain injury. [6] Diagnostic imaging such as a CT scan or an MRI may also be required to rule out severe head injuries. [125], At least 41 systems measure the severity, or grade, of a mild head injury,[37] and there is little agreement about which is best. [52] In 1839, Guillaume Dupuytren described brain contusions, which involve many small hemorrhages, as contusio cerebri and showed the difference between unconsciousness associated with damage to the brain parenchyma and that due to concussion, without such injury.

[34], After exclusion of neck or head injury, observation should be continued for several hours. [12] People may be released after assessment from hospital or emergency room to the care of a trusted person with instructions to return if they display worsening symptoms or those that might indicate an emergent condition ("red flag symptoms") such as change in consciousness, convulsions, severe headache, extremity weakness, vomiting, new bleeding or deafness in either or both ears.

[124], Measurement of predictive visual tracking is being studied as a screening technique to identify mild traumatic brain injury.

[46] Longer periods of amnesia or loss of consciousness immediately after the injury may indicate longer recovery times from residual symptoms. Other strong factors include participation in a contact sport and body mass size. [84] mTBI associated with abnormal neuroimaging may be considered "complicated mTBI".

[111] It shares features with Alzheimer's disease. [30] Other mTBI symptoms include changes in sleeping patterns[24] and difficulty with reasoning,[25] concentrating, and performing everyday activities. [21] A person may repeat the same questions,[29] be slow to respond to questions or directions, have a vacant stare, or have slurred[21] or incoherent speech.

4 words related to concuss: shake, agitate, injure, wound.

concuss definition: 1. to give someone concussion 2. to give someone concussion.

[13], Prevention of concussions includes the use of a helmet when bicycling or motorbiking. ", "Efficacy of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: interventions of QEEG-guided biofeedback, computers, strategies, and medications", "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Among Children", "Incidence and risk factors for concussion in high school athletes, North Carolina, 1996-1999", "Diagnostic criteria for postconcussional syndrome after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury", "Assessment and management of concussion in sports", "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in the National Football League", "Non-surgical intervention and cost for mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury", "Report to congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: Steps to prevent a serious public health problem", "Current concepts in concussion diagnosis and management in sports: A clinical review", "The young brain and concussion: imaging as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis", "Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004", "Facts about Concussion and Brain Injury and Where to Get Help", US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Concussion&oldid=983528210, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from December 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from July 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from May 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mild brain injury, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), mild head injury (MHI), minor head trauma, Physical and cognitive rest for a day or two with a gradual return to activities, Post-traumatic amnesia <30 minutes, no loss of consciousness, Loss of consciousness <5 minutes or amnesia lasting 30 minutes–24 hours, Loss of consciousness >5 minutes or amnesia >24 hours, Confusion, post-traumatic amnesia, no loss of consciousness, Confusion, symptoms last <15 minutes, no loss of consciousness, Symptoms last >15 minutes, no loss of consciousness, Loss of consciousness (IIIa, coma lasts seconds, IIIb for minutes), Light aerobic activity such as walking or stationary cycling, Sport-specific activities such as running drills and skating drills, Non-contact training drills (exercise, coordination, and cognitive load), Return to sport (requires medical clearance), This page was last edited on 14 October 2020, at 19:02. People without brain injury will be able to track the moving object with smooth pursuit eye movements and correct trajectory while it is hypothesized that those with mild traumatic brain injury cannot.

[11], Head trauma recipients are initially assessed to exclude a more severe emergency such as an intracranial hemorrhage. [10][92] Any activity for which there is a risk of contact, falling, or bumping the head should be avoided. [26] Concussive convulsions are thought to result from temporary loss or inhibition of motor function and are not associated either with epilepsy or with more serious structural damage.

[46] Thus cells get less glucose than they normally do, which causes an "energy crisis". All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only.

[21], A concussion can result in changes in mood including crankiness, loss of interest in favorite activities or items,[31] tearfulness,[32] and displays of emotion that are inappropriate to the situation.

[54] This results in potassium outflow from within the cell into the extracellular space with the subsequent release of excitatory neurotransmitters including glutamate which leads to enhanced potassium extrusion, in turn resulting in sustained depolarization, impaired nerve activity and potential nerve damage.

[32], Forces may cause linear, rotational, or angular movement of the brain or a combination of them. [118], The Hippocratic Corpus, a collection of medical works from ancient Greece, mentions concussion, later translated to commotio cerebri, and discusses loss of speech, hearing and sight that can result from "commotion of the brain". [90][needs update], In the past, the decision to allow athletes to return to participation was frequently based on the grade of concussion. Recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who may suffer concussive injuries", "Concussion Pathophysiology and Injury Biomechanics", "Living Guideline for Diagnosing and Managing Pediatric Concussion", "Facts About Concussion and Brain Injury", American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", "Diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury", "Sport concussion assessment tool - 5th edition", "Sport concussion assessment tool for childrens ages 5 to 12 years", "Neuropsychological evaluation in the diagnosis and management of sports-related concussion", "Statement on Concussion Baseline Testing in Canada", "Press Announcements – FDA authorizes marketing of first blood test to aid in the evaluation of concussion in adults", "Mild head injury: The new frontier in sports medicine", "Postconcussional disorder: Background to DSM-IV and future considerations", "Primary prevention of contact sports-related concussions in amateur athletes: a systematic review from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma", "American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement: concussion in sport", "Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2008", "Information about NICE clinical guideline", "Effectiveness of return to activity and return to school protocols for children postconcussion: a systematic review", "What Can I Do to Help Feel Better After a Concussion? [71], Cumulative effects of concussions are poorly understood, especially the effects on children. [59] Those with such symptoms, or those who are at higher risk of a more serious brain injury, may undergo brain imaging to detect lesions and are frequently observed for 24–48 hours. More severe impacts, or the forces associated with rapid acceleration, may not be absorbed by this cushion. [103] A Canadian study found that the yearly incidence of mTBI is lower in older age groups (graph at right). Veelgebruikte medische termen en hun betekenis Als je bij de dokter zit kan het gebeuren dat deze woorden gebruikt waarvan je later, als je weer buiten staat, denkt: wat betekende dat nou eigenlijk?

[74] Analgesics such as ibuprofen can be taken for headaches,[37] but paracetamol (acetaminophen) is preferred to minimize the risk of intracranial hemorrhage.

[31], Protective equipment such as helmets and other headgear and policy changes such as the banning of body checking in youth hockey leagues have been found to reduce the number and severity of concussions in athletes. [4] Other areas of the brain that may be affected include the upper part of the brain stem, the fornix, the corpus callosum, the temporal lobe, and the frontal lobe.

[23] In an effort to simplify, the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, meeting in Prague in 2004, decided that these systems should be abandoned in favor of a 'simple' or 'complex' classification.

[60], Diagnosis of concussion requires an assessment performed by a physician or nurse practitioner to rule out severe injuries to the brain and cervical spine, mental health conditions, or other medical conditions.

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