Bibliography: Lane, Lexicon, s.v. In 1135/1723 Ottoman forces occupied Tiflls, and on Russia's seizing Darband and Baku in the same year, in 1724, after a period of tension during which a fresh war between Ahmad and the Tsar came near to breaking out, another Russo-Ottoman treaty was concluded, providing for a partition that should leave Peter in possession of Darband, Baku and Gilan and the sultan in that of Georgia, Eriwan, Shlrwan, Adharbaydjan and all Persian territory west of the line Ardabil-Hamadan. In 340/951 he left with his son c Ubayd Allah for Hadramawt, and lived at first near Tarim in al-Hadjaren, then in Karat Ban! Bibliography: V. Cuinet, La Turquie d'Asie, i, 227-39; Sh. J. M. B. JONES, School of Oriental and African [J. H. MORDTMANN, Berlin]. A wide liberty should therefore be left to both parties in drawing up the conditions of a contract, especially in regard to transactions, in which no stipulations can be nullified except those contrary to the formal interdiction in the Kur'an and the Sunna of speculation (maysir) and usury (ribd). Babinger, 267); A. Decei, Les Fetifrndme-i Karabogdan des XV9 et XVI9 siecles, Actes XII9 Congr. However, the locality where cA3isha lived continues to attract believers, especially women, and to-day bears the name of al-Mannubiyya. cArabadii CAH Pasha succeeded him, but was soon replaced by Hadjdii CAH Pasha who, in 1692, conducted his campaign with great caution.


God is omnipresent in the sense that he directs everything and his direction is exercised in every place. arab. From his fort at Tunbudha, near Tunis, he called the Arab chiefs to arms and received their support (209/824). Though nominal Mughal sovereignty over the town continued till it was annexed by the British in 1803, except for the years 1774 to 1785 when Nadjaf Khan (d. 1782) and his successors were its governors, Agra was under the occupation of the Djats (17611770, and 1773-74) and the Mahrattas (1758-61, 1770-73, and 1785-1803). (V. MINORSKY) AHL AL-tfALL WA'L-CA$D (this, though illogical, is the normal order of the words), "those who are qualified to unbind and to bind", the representatives of the community of the Muslims who act on their behalf in appointing and deposing a caliph or 264 AHL AL-HALL WA'L- C AKD — AHL AL-KITAB another ruler [see BAYCA]. R. RUBINACCI, Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples. Ak Hisar in the M a r m a r a district, now called Pamuk-ova, in the kadd of Geyve, wilayet of Izmid (Kodja-eli), situated on the left bank of the Sakarya river, and a station on the Anatolian railway. £AYS, for Rabib read Hablb. also Ferldun Bey, Munsha^dt. The Almoravids chose Aghmat as an enforced place of residence for two of the rulers whom they had deposed in Spain, namely the Zirid ruler of Granada cAbd Allah b. Buluggin, and the famous al-Muctamid of Seville. 1757 he went as Ottoman envoy to Vienna and on his return made a written report of his impressions and experiences. The traditions attributed to him contain much material which cannot be genuine; but Sprenger is scarcely justified in calling him a pious humbug of the first water, as the traditions traced to him are not necessarily his. The Azd faction then allied themselves with the Bakr and the €Abd al-Kays against the Tamlm, whom al-Ahnaf had exhorted to adopt a moderate policy towards the Azd. Al-Tunbudhi surrendered and was executed. Detailed general survey in Ghaffarl, Djihdn-drd (with additions in MS Br. Born in Istanbul on 3 June 1870, he began his career as a writer while still a pupil at the Galatasaray lycee. H. A. Walter, The Ahmadiya Movement, Calcutta and London 1918; numerous other studies; articles in MW every few years). AHMAD SHAH B. MUHAMMAD SHAH SHAMS ALforced to come to terms. In the summer of 1888 he went as official Ottoman representative to the International Congress of Orientalists in Stockholm, and spent some 3x/2 months in Europe. See particularly V. V. Barthold, Ulug Beg i iego vremja, 1918 (Germ, transl.

His father Sidi Khodia was a merchant in Trstenik (not far from Nicopolis). For some time an autonomous Afc Koyunlu principality existed in Mardin: princes Hamza b. c Uthman, DJihangir b. CAH and Kasim b. Diihanglr.

A. Perier, Yahya ben 'Adi, 67, 150 ff. is unknown in earlier times. Kuyudju Murad Pasha was despatched against the rebels, and triumphed over MuslI Cawush at Laranda, over Djamshid at Adana, and notably over Pjanbulad-oghlu eAli Pasha in the plain of Orudj, near Beylan (24 Dec. 1607).
But a suitable pretext for war against the republic occurred only in 1714, when, after the 269 suppression of a Russian-instigated rebellion in Montenegro, the Venetian government refused to extradite the Vladika and other eminent Montenegrins who had sought refuge in Venetian territory. A. d. osm. The small Christian states of the Peninsula, though divided by internal quarrels, could, in spite of their lack of men and resources, inflict on him the severest reverses. (SH. The original work of Ahmad Yasawl has not come down to us and the oldest MSS belong to the i7th century.


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