Programs in the form of card decks were reproduced for backup.

assors to the Tabulating Machine Co., Endicott, NY. The IBM 80 series sorters sorted input cards into one of 13 pockets depending on the holes punched in a selected column and the sorter's settings.
[8]:65 Electronic components were used on other machines beginning in the late 1940s. 1912: The first Powers horizontal sorting machine. This will be IBMs last punched card calculator. The "sorter", an independent machine, was a later development. Processing surpassed 4,000 items a minute. Opposition by rival Simeon North, picked to run the 1910 census, boxed out Hollerith, compounding his frustration. This data processing was accomplished by processing punched cards through various unit record machines in a carefully choreographed progression. IBM's Hollerith punch-card system stored any information, such as ethnic type, profession and residential location, in the rows and columns strategically punched. On early models, the accumulator register dials would be read manually after a card run to get totals. [8], Hollerith's method was used for the 1890 census. Many applications using unit record tabulators were migrated to computers such as the IBM 1401. After the 1890 census, the US population continued to grow and the original tabulator-sorters were not fast enough to handle the 1900 census; so Hollerith devised another machine to stave off another data processing crisis" []. These projects  presaged the outcome of a competition to mechanize the 1890 federal census. TMC Type IV Accounting Machine (later renamed the IBM 301), from the IBM Archives: The 301 (better known as the Type IV) Accounting Machine was the first card-controlled machine to incorporate class selection, automatic subtraction, and printing of a net positive or negative balance. This amazing depiction shows male and female workers using the card-punch tabulators, an example of a punched card, the Census Building, and a group of clerks organizing and bundling the resulting data sheets. 1889: First recorded use of integrating tabulator in the Office of the Surgeon General of the Army. Reports and summary data were generated by accounting or tabulating machines.

In 1887 Baltimore and in 1889 New York City successfully used his system to tally vital statistics, proving Hollerith’s concept. They allowed large volume, sophisticated data-processing tasks to be accomplished before electronic computers were invented and while they were still in their infancy.

The Distance Control Device received a US patent in Aug.9,1932: U.S. Patent 1,870,230 . In 1911, Hollerith sold his stake in Tabulating Machine Company to Thomas Flint and retired to Virginia to raise  swine, sheep, and finally cattle. The image shows Herman Hollerith's 1890 tabulating machine (image from IBM; CLICK HERE for a color photo).The results of a tabulation are displayed on the clock-like dials. Borrowing brilliantly, Hollerith between 1884 and 1887 filed three patents. The operation of many machines was directed by the use of a removable plugboard, control panel, or connection box.

[7] If the card was to be sorted, a compartment lid of the sorting box would open for storage of the card, the choice of compartment depending on the data in the card. For example: stock updates applied to an inventory, banking transactions applied to account and customer master files, booking and ticketing transactions to an airline's reservation system, billing for utility services. 1933: The Tabulating Machine Company name disappears as subsidiary companies are merged into IBM. IBM 402 and 403, from 1948, were modernized successors to the 405. As a result, the agency held a competition in 1888 to find a more efficient method to process and tabulate data. The United States Census of 1890 was taken beginning June 2, 1890. On a Jacquard loom, cards punched with holes automatically directed threads to their locations in a piece of fabric. The output from some card column positions might connected to a tabulating machine's counter, for example. In 1924 CTR was renamed International Business Machines (IBM). [9], The advantages of the technology were immediately apparent for accounting and tracking inventory. It could also punch additional information into those cards and select desired cards.[76]. [14], The first TMC printing tabulator was developed in 1920. When an electrical circuit was closed (through a punched hole in a predetermined position on the card), each counter was actuated by an electromagnet.


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