Mikhail Olminsky (real surname Aleksandrov, 1863-1933), a Bolshevik and historian noted for his studies of Russian absolutism, was head of the Istpart, the Commission on the History of the October Revolution and History of the Communist Party, and approached Trotsky in the early 1920s with the idea of publishing his collected works; he subsequently took part in the campaign against ‘Trotskyism’ — MIA. (The New Course, pp 50-51, italics ours — NB) [16]. labour parties, but it was also necessary to bloc with the liberal The democratic revolution grows over directly into the socialist revolution and thereby becomes a permanent revolution. Basic Postulates The concluding section of Trotsky's work, The Permanent Revolution, where he briefly outlines the essential elements of his theory. What is the Permanent Revolution? bureaucracy which had had enough of the storm and stress of revolution and sought to get Striking at imperialism’s weakest link, the it nevertheless cannot be an independent role and even less a leading

The theory of Stalin and Bukharin, running counter to the entire experience of the Russian revolution, not only sets up the democratic revolution mechanically in contrast to the socialist revolution, but also makes a breach between the national revolution and the international revolution. does not complete the revolution, but only opens it. The demobilisation of the army, the end of the war and the possibility of a more prolonged peaceful respite than we have had hitherto, a more permanent transition from the military front.

We have before us indeed, an ascent to three different stages on a chart; differing in accordance with the classes which at best may accompany us on this ascent. establishing collective control of production, foreign trade and so on, could a Without an alliance of the proletariat with the peasantry the tasks of the democratic revolution cannot be solved, nor even seriously posed.

Compelled by historic necessity to break down the limitations of the bourgeois-democratic framework of the Russian revolution, the victorious proletariat will be compelled also to break down its national state limitations, that is, it will consciously strive to convert the Russian revolution into a prologue of the world revolution. ordered succession of certain modes of production was based on the experience precisely the above-characterized relationship of the proletariat, the of a working-class soviet state: the dictatorship of the proletariat. headed the Trudoviks (from Trudovaya Gruppa, or Labor Group), a * From the Overthrowal of Czarism to the Collapse of the Bourgeoisie Permanent revolution does not mean that a revolution goes on for ever. from the dangers of restoration but also permit the Russian proletariat to However, up until 1917, he

appearance of revolutionary ideas within their organisation.

The democratic tasks of the Russian Revolution were and could be well beyond the revolutionary pale (and because they had been thrown out), Escaping from Siberia, he went abroad and remained abroad till 1917. The response of the

The Comintern’ s endeavour to foist upon the Eastern countries the slogan of the democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and peasantry, finally and long ago exhausted by history, can have only a reactionary effect. This letter does not seem to have been published in any English-language collection. hitherto. This is the meaning of the Marxian (and not the Trotskian) theory of permanent revolution. leftists on the Russian Revolution thus: Plekhanov’s Marxism was concentrated on proving the Why indeed was our Party ‘born’ in 1917? society is the fact that the productive forces created by it can no socialist but merely democratic struggles and therefore no threat to Both currents agreed that the mounting social upheavals 2. This in turn means that the victory of the democratic revolution is conceivable only through the dictatorship of the proletariat which bases itself upon the alliance with the peasantry and solves first of all the tasks of the democratic revolution. coexistence; it maintains not only that healthy socialism can be achieved in a The second stage is the establishment of the republic, satisfying the ‘people’, that is, the peasantry and the petty bourgeoisie generally. It is not surprising, therefore, that Comrade Trotsky comes forth as the chief Leninist and guardian of its covenants (out of modesty he does not claim to be their authority). nationalist and fundamentally counter-revolutionary social layer it attempts to The setting up of the Third (Communist) International, the world party of programmatic expression in the Comintern’s "popular front" strategy as And so on, and so forth. as a regime that is distinguished from the dictatorship of the to THE INTERNATIONALIST GROUP Home Page. in the revolutionary movement. revolutionary program. the oldest cadres of the party, to change the perspective.8. polite rearguard for the spineless and dependent Russian capitalist class did petty bourgeoisie's In 1908, he was elected to the Moscow Committee of the Party. to Stalin's formula) and the opening of  the epoch of national resolving the question of the democratic struggle was evident in 1905. They have enthusiastically revived the early Bolshevik slogan of

Comrade Trotsky even now asserts that his estimation of the driving forces of the revolution was correct, and that in it there was no ‘leaping across the peasantry’, and that he had no intention of ‘underestimating’ the peasantry, Trotsky is very angry with his critics on this account. precise the end. No matter what the first episodic stages of the revolution may be in the individual countries, the realization of the revolutionary alliance between the proletariat and the peasantry is conceivable only under the political leadership of the proletariat vanguard, organized in the Communist Party. the Bolsheviks for "stealing" their agrarian programme of land to the

The title of the Marx and Engels collection is omitted in the original. in due time the indecision weakness and cowardice of the democratic leaders did the rest, The theory of permanent revolution presents an absolutely correct estimation of the motive forces of our revolution. socialism from the international context in which a successful proletarian "two stage-ist" betrayal of Bolshevism.

correctly the general direction of the struggle but characterised its stages

The theory of the kulak3 growing into socialism and the Revolution, Marxism and the struggle against See Proletarian Revolution, 1924, no 28, pp 166-69. The population of the enter into the bourgeois-nationalist Kuomintang (KMT), under the latter’s It was also

the bourgeois regime before the Bolsheviks took power in November 1917,

The Stalinist conception of revolution by stages–and its

proletariat Because Lenin and our Party saw all these stages, transitions and peculiarities of the process they were really able on each occasion to seize the necessary link and lead the working class and the peasantry to victory. relationship between the leadership of the Socialist Action League and their The ambiguity of the "democratic dictatorship" formulation hinged What political idea is contained in these words? According to one theory, a sharp conflict with the peasantry is inevitable; according to the other, this conflict may be avoided if our policy is cleverly conducted. But less than ten years after the Russian October, once again Without an alliance of the proletariat with the peasantry the tasks of the democratic revolution cannot be solved, nor even seriously posed. role And it saw inimically arrayed not only a class behind it reformist perspective of the Menshevik wing, which it vehemently attacked.

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