Yielding to political pressure, Brig.

Porter King, 4th Alabama Regiment, July 1861. Both Union and Confederate killed, wounded, and missing were a little over 1700 each. Daybreak on July 22 found the defeated Union army back behind the bristling defenses of Washington. Only one of his wings ran with him. Beatie, pp. "The Battlefield and Beyond. Both armies were sobered by the fierce fighting and the many casualties and realized that the war was going to be much longer and bloodier than either had anticipated.
[20][21], On July 16, McDowell departed Washington with the largest field army yet gathered on the North American continent, about 35,000 men (28,452 effectives).

Beauregard. Their 11 guns engaged in a fierce artillery duel across 300 yards (270 m) against Jackson's 13. Confederate Col. Nathan Evans, commanding at the Stone Bridge, soon realized that the attack on his front was only a diversion. The Federal forces gave way at once, and a Confederate artillery barrage turned the retreat into a panicked flight to the Potomac. ), for June 30, 1861. On Aug. 9, Jackson defeated Banks' corps at Cedar Mountain, and by Aug. 13, Lee moved Longstreet north as well.

However, things took a sharp turn when the Confederates pushed harder than the Union expected. What is the Minnie Ball and why did it produce the most difficult injuries of the Civil War? "[18] Against his better judgment, McDowell commenced campaigning. [32], All that stood in the path of the 20,000 Union soldiers converging on the Confederate left flank were Col. Nathan "Shanks" Evans and his reduced brigade of 1,100 men. [61], Confederate casualties at the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. The First Battle of Bull Run is mentioned in the novel Gods and Generals, but is depicted more fully in its film adaptation. The first Battle of the Bull Run occurred 13 months earlier when both sides had gone gloriously to war for their separate notions of what the ideal United States should be. The battle is described from the viewpoint of a Union infantryman in Upton Sinclair's novella Manassas, which also depicts the political turmoil leading up to the Civil War. Tyler's division (about 8,000) marched directly toward the Stone Bridge. (Signed) JORDAN, Adjutant-General. See, for instance, McPherson, p. 342. But even with these reinforcements, the thin gray line collapsed and Southerners fled in disorder toward Henry Hill.

Before the attack could be launched, however, the Union army assaulted the Confederate left on July 21. This route took the Federals around the Confederate left. Actually both had poorly trained forces. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase championed fellow Ohioan, 42-year-old Maj. Irvin McDowell. Just months after the start of the war at Fort Sumter, the Northern public clamored for a march against the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, which was expected to bring an early end to the Confederacy. They win Bull Run, and persue the broken ANVA as soon as the Union reserves meet up with the main force.

The First battle of Bull Run or First Manassas was the first large land battle fought during the Civil War. As the soldiers streamed uncontrollably toward Centreville, discarding their arms and equipment, McDowell ordered Col. Dixon S. Miles's division to act as a rear guard, but it was impossible to rally the army short of Washington.

The humiliation of Bull Run provided focus to the unorganized enthusiasm of the North, which eventually coalesced into a determination to crush the rebellion at all costs. Pope misinterpreted the battle as a retreat and ordered his men to trap Jackson's men.

[28], On July 19–20, significant reinforcements bolstered the Confederate lines behind Bull Run. [19] He provided her with a code for messages. Gen.Joseph E. Johnston, Army of the Shenandoah, Abstract front field return, First Corps (Army of the Potomac), July 21, 1861. Map of the First Battle of Bull Run, drawn by Capt. Omissions? Gen. Theodore Runyon with 5,000 troops to protect the army's rear. The First Battle of Bull Run (the name used by Union forces), also known as the First Battle of Manassas[1] (the name used by Confederate forces), was the first major battle of the American Civil War and was a Confederate victory. Patterson was completely deceived. Although modern historians generally agree with that interpretation, James M. McPherson has argued that the esprit de corps attained by Confederate troops on the heels of their victory, together with a new sense of insecurity felt by northern commanders, also gave the Confederacy a military edge in the following months. Night closed on the enemy in full flight and closely pursued."[56]. [72], The name of the battle has caused controversy since 1861.
Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Gen. Richard S. Ewell to lead the attack, Ewell, at Union Mills Ford, was simply ordered to "hold ... in readiness to advance at a moment's notice". The battle also showed the need for adequately trained and experienced officers and men. McDowell's men frantically ran without order in the direction of Washington, D.C. Lee and Longstreet moved forward with 25,000 men against the Union's left flank.

It ended up a clear victory for the Confederates.

", This page was last edited on 8 October 2020, at 21:53. The first was won by Joseph E. Johnston and P.G.T. They had the numbers, they had the element of surprise and they also were in the same league as the defense soldiers. [17] McDowell immediately began organizing what became known as the Army of Northeastern Virginia, 35,000 men arranged in five divisions. First Battle of Bull Run, also called First Battle of Manassas , Battle of First Manassas, or Manassas Junction, (July 21, 1861), in the American Civil War, the first of two engagements fought at a small stream named Bull Run, near Manassas in northern Virginia. [30], Brig. About 9:15 am the Federal troops came under Confederate fire and were forced to deploy, but two hours later McDowell’s flanking threat caused Evans, Bee, and Bartow to withdraw in disorder to the Henry House Hill. If so, they would have been the only foreign-made weapons on the field. Most people believed that it would take only one big decisive battle to resolve their differences. In fact, the next morning two units of McDowell's command, their enlistments expiring that day, would turn


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